Drilling

Drilling of boreholes is done through rotary wash boring and percussion techniques. The borehole diameters vary from 100mm (4in) to 560 mm (22in). Drilling for geotechnical investigations is done for different depths varying from 5 meters to 60 meters. Water wells have been drilled for 400mm (16in) diameter up to a depth of 80 meters.

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Drilling Bits

Drilling bits for different kinds of subsurface conditions:

  • Tricone bit – coarse sands
  • Clay bit – fine sands and clay
  • Double tube core barrels – Rock deposits
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Drilling Size

The diameter of boreholes depends upon the size of the bit and the bit sizes range :

  • 89mm (3.5in)
  • 114mm (4.5in)
  • 140mm (5.5in)
  • 50mm (6.0in)
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Core Sizes

Rotary core drilling through rock can be done for different core sizes:

  • HQ
  • HX
  • NX
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Drilling Depth

The depth of drilling through rocks and soils e.g. sands and clays can be done up to:

  • Rocks 100 meters.
  • Soil 150 meters.

Rotary / Wash Drilling

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In rotary/wash boring method, soil is cut by the constant rotation of various types of bits. Drilling fluid, which is either water or bentonite slurry, is circulated through drilling rods. The returning fluid lifts loosened material.

Percussion Drilling

In the percussion drilling method a vertical hole is drilled by repeatedly dropping a heavy bailer on the bottom of the hole. This loosens the soil and breaks up gravel, boulders and consolidated rock. The bailer consists of a section of pipe with a valve at the bottom. The valve, which may be of the flat type or the ball-and-tongue type, is open when the bailer is lowered into the hole and closed when the bailer is pulled up. The bailer is lowered and the hole is baled several times until the drill cuttings have been removed.

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Offshore Drilling

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In rotary/wash boring method, soil is cut by the constant rotation of various types of bits. Drilling fluid, which is either water or bentonite slurry, is circulated through drilling rods. The returning fluid lifts loosened material.

Percussion Drilling

In the percussion drilling method a vertical hole is drilled by repeatedly dropping a heavy bailer on the bottom of the hole. This loosens the soil and breaks up gravel, boulders and consolidated rock. The bailer consists of a section of pipe with a valve at the bottom. The valve, which may be of the flat type or the ball-and-tongue type, is open when the bailer is lowered into the hole and closed when the bailer is pulled up. The bailer is lowered and the hole is baled several times until the drill cuttings have been removed.

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Equipments

More than 180 drilling equipments and machinery is available on ground.

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